OAuth 2 in Action
Justin Richer and Antonio Sanso
Foreword by Ian Glazer
  • March 2017
  • ISBN 9781617293276
  • 360 pages
  • printed in black & white

Provides pragmatic guidance on what to do ... and what not to do.

From the Foreword by Ian Glazer, Salesforce

OAuth 2 in Action teaches you the practical use and deployment of this HTTP-based protocol from the perspectives of a client, authorization server, and resource server. You'll learn how to confidently and securely build and deploy OAuth on both the client and server sides.

About the Technology

Think of OAuth 2 as the web version of a valet key. It is an HTTP-based security protocol that allows users of a service to enable applications to use that service on their behalf without handing over full control. And OAuth is used everywhere, from Facebook and Google, to startups and cloud services.

About the book

OAuth 2 in Action teaches you practical use and deployment of OAuth 2 from the perspectives of a client, an authorization server, and a resource server. You'll begin with an overview of OAuth and its components and interactions. Next, you'll get hands-on and build an OAuth client, an authorization server, and a protected resource. Then you'll dig into tokens, dynamic client registration, and more advanced topics. By the end, you'll be able to confidently and securely build and deploy OAuth on both the client and server sides.

Table of Contents detailed table of contents

Part 1: First steps

1. What is OAuth 2.0 and why should you care?

1.1. What is OAuth 2.0?

1.2. The bad old days: credential sharing (and credential theft)

1.3. Secure delegated access to web APIs

1.3.1. Beyond HTTP Basic and the Password Anti-Pattern

1.3.2. Authorization delegation: why it matters and how it's used

1.3.3. User-driven security and user choice

1.4. OAuth 2.0: the good, the bad and the ugly

1.5. What OAuth isn't

1.6. Summary

2. The OAuth Dance

2.1. Overview of the OAuth 2.0 protocol: getting and using tokens

2.2. Following an OAuth authorization grant in detail

2.3. OAuth's actors: clients, authorization servers, resource owners, and protected resources

2.4. OAuth Components: Tokens, scopes, and authorization grants

2.4.1. Access tokens

2.4.2. Scopes

2.4.3. Refresh tokens

2.4.4. Authorization grants

2.5. Interactions between OAuth's actors and components: back channel, front channel, and endpoints

2.5.1. Back-channel Communication

2.5.2. Front-channel Communication

2.6. Summary

Part 2: Building an OAuth 2.0 Environment

3. Building a Simple OAuth Client

3.1. Register an OAuth client with an authorization server

3.2. Get a token using the authorization code grant type

3.2.1. Sending the authorization request

3.2.2. Processing the authorization response

3.2.3. Adding cross site protection with the state parameter

3.3. Use the token with a protected resource

3.4. Refresh the access token

3.5. Summary

4. Building a Simple Protected Resource

4.1. Parsing the OAuth token from the HTTP request

4.2. Validating the token against our data store

4.3. Serving content based on the token

4.3.1. Different scopes for different requests

4.3.2. Different results for different scopes

4.3.3. Different results for different users

4.3.4. Other access controls

4.4. Summary

5. Building a Simple OAuth Authorization Server

5.1. Managing OAuth client registrations

5.2. Authorizing a client

5.2.1. The Authorization Endpoint

5.2.2. Authorizing the client

5.3. Issuing a token

5.3.1. Authenticating the client

5.3.2. Processing the authorization grant request

5.4. Adding refresh token support

5.5. Adding scope support

5.6. Summary

6. OAuth 2.0 In the Real World

6.1. Authorization Grant Types

6.1.1. Implicit

6.1.2. Client Credentials

6.1.3. Resource Owner Credentials

6.1.4. Assertions

6.1.5. Choosing the Appropriate Grant Type

6.2. Client Deployments

6.2.1. Web Applications

6.2.2. Browser Applications

6.2.3. Native Applications

6.2.4. Handling Secrets

6.3. Summary

Part 3: OAuth 2.0 Implementation Vulnerabilities

7. Common client vulnerabilities

7.1. General client security

7.2. CSRF attack against the client

7.3. Theft of client credentials

7.4. Registration of the redirect uri

7.4.1. Stealing the authorization code through the referrer

7.4.2. Stealing the token through an open redirector

7.5. Theft of authorization codes

7.6. Theft of tokens

7.7. Native applications best practices

7.8. Summary

8. Common Protected Resources Vulnerabilities

8.1. How are protected resources vulnerable?

8.2. Design of a protected resource endpoint

8.2.1. How to protect a resource endpoint

8.2.2. Adding implicit grant support

8.3. Token Replays

8.4. Summary

9. Common authorization server vulnerabilities

9.1. General security

9.2. Session hijacking

9.3. Redirect URI manipulation

9.4. Client impersonation

9.5. Open redirector

9.6. Summary

10. Common OAuth Tokens vulnerabilities

10.1. What is a bearer token?

10.2. Risks and considerations of using bearer tokens

10.3. How to protect bearer tokens

10.3.1. At the client

10.3.2. At the authorization server

10.3.3. At the protected resource

10.4. Authorization code

10.4.1. Proof Key for Code Exchange (PKCE)

10.5. Summary

Part 4: Taking OAuth Further

11. OAuth Tokens

11.1. What are OAuth tokens?

11.2. Structured Tokens: JSON Web Token (JWT)

11.2.1. The Structure of a JWT

11.2.2. JWT Claims

11.2.3. Implementing JWT in our servers

11.3. Cryptographic protection of tokens: JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE)

11.3.1. Symmetric signatures using HS256

11.3.2. Asymmetric signatures using RS256

11.3.3. Other token protection options

11.4. Looking up a token's information online: token introspection

11.4.1. The introspection protocol

11.4.2. Building the introspection endpoint

11.4.3. Introspecting a token

11.4.4. Combining introspection and JWT

11.5. Managing the token lifecycle with token revocation

11.5.1. The token revocation protocol

11.5.2. Implementing the revocation endpoint

11.5.3. Revoking a token

11.6. The OAuth token lifecycle

11.7. Summary

12. Dynamic Client Registration

12.1. How the server knows about the client

12.2. Registering clients at runtime

12.2.1. How the protocol works

12.2.2. Why use dynamic registration?

12.2.3. Implementing the registration endpoint

12.2.4. Having a client register itself

12.3. Client metadata

12.3.1. Table of core client metadata field names

12.3.2. Internationalization of human readable client metadata

12.3.3. Software statements

12.4. Managing dynamically registered clients

12.4.1. How the management protocol works

12.4.2. Implementing the dynamic client registration management API

12.5. Summary

13. User Authentication with OAuth 2.0

13.1. Why OAuth 2.0 is not an authentication protocol

13.1.1. Authentication vs. authorization: a delicious metaphor

13.2. Mapping OAuth to an authentication protocol

13.3. How OAuth 2.0 uses authentication

13.4. Common pitfalls of using OAuth 2.0 for authentication

13.4.1. Access tokens as proof of authentication

13.4.2. Access of a protected API as proof of authentication

13.4.3. Injection of access tokens

13.4.4. Lack of audience restriction

13.4.5. Injection of invalid user information

13.4.6. Different protocols for every potential identity provider

13.5. OpenID Connect: a standard for authentication and identity over OAuth 2.0

13.5.1. ID tokens

13.5.2. The UserInfo endpoint

13.5.3. Dynamic server discovery and client registration

13.5.4. Compatibility with OAuth 2.0

13.5.5. Advanced capabilities

13.6. Building a simple OpenID Connect system

13.6.1. Generating the ID token

13.6.2. Creating the UserInfo endpoint

13.6.3. Parsing the ID token

13.6.4. Fetching the UserInfo

13.7. Summary

14. Protocols and Profiles using OAuth 2.0

14.1. User Managed Access (UMA)

14.1.1. Why UMA matters

14.1.2. How the UMA protocol works

14.2. Health Relationship Trust (HEART)

14.2.1. Why HEART matters to you

14.2.2. The HEART specifications

14.2.3. HEART mechanical profiles

14.2.4. HEART semantic profiles

14.3. International Government Assurance (iGov)

14.3.1. Why iGov matters to you

14.3.2. The future of iGov

14.4. Summary

15. Beyond Bearer Tokens

15.1. Why do we need more than bearer tokens?

15.2. Proof of Possession (PoP) tokens

15.2.1. Requesting and issuing a PoP token

15.2.2. Using a PoP token at a protected resource

15.2.3. Validating a PoP token request

15.3. Implementing PoP token support

15.3.1. Issuing the token and keys

15.3.2. Creating the signed header and sending it to the resource

15.3.3. Parsing the header, introspecting the token, and validating the signature

15.4. TLS token binding

15.5. Summary

Part 5: Finally

16. Summary and conclusions

16.1. The right tool

16.2. Making key decisions

16.3. The wider ecosystem

16.4. The community

16.5. The future

16.6. Summary


Appendix A: An Introduction to Our Code Framework

A.1. An Introduction to Our Code Framework

Appendix B: Extended Code Listings

What's inside

  • Covers OAuth 2 protocol and design
  • Authorization with OAuth 2
  • OpenID Connect and User-Managed Access
  • Implementation risks
  • JOSE, introspection, revocation, and registration
  • Protecting and accessing REST APIs

About the reader

Readers need basic programming skills and knowledge of HTTP and JSON.

About the authors

Justin Richer is a systems architect and software engineer. Antonio Sanso is a security software engineer and a security researcher. Both authors contribute to open standards and open source.

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