Tiny Python Projects
Learn coding and testing with puzzles and games
Ken Youens-Clark
  • July 2020
  • ISBN 9781617297519
  • 440 pages
  • printed in black & white

Tiny Python Projects is a gentle, amusing introduction to Python that will firm up several key concepts while occasionally making you snicker.

Amanda Debler, Schaeffler Technologies
A long journey is really a lot of little steps. The same is true when you're learning Python, so you may as well have some fun along the way! Written in a lighthearted style with entertaining exercises that build powerful skills, Tiny Python Projects takes you from amateur to Pythonista as you create 22 bitesize programs. Each tiny project teaches you a new programming concept, from the basics of lists and strings right through to regular expressions and randomness. Along the way you'll also discover how testing can make you a better programmer in any language.

About the Technology

Who says learning to program has to be boring? The 21 activities in this book teach Python fundamentals through puzzles and games. Not only will you be entertained with every exercise, but you'll learn about text manipulation, basic algorithms, and lists and dictionaries as you go. It's the ideal way for any Python newbie to gain confidence and experience.

About the book

The projects are tiny, but the rewards are big: each chapter in Tiny Python Projects challenges you with a new Python program, including a password creator, a word rhymer, and a Shakespearean insult generator. As you complete these entertaining exercises, you'll graduate from a Python beginner to a confident programmer—and you'll have a good time doing it!
Table of Contents detailed table of contents

0 Getting started: Introduction and installation guide

Writing command-line programs

Using test-driven development

Setting up your environment

Code examples

Getting the code

Installing modules

Code formatters

Code linters

How to start writing new programs

Why not Notebooks?

The scope of topics we’ll cover

Why not object-oriented programming?

A note about the lingo

1 How to write and test a Python program

1.1 Creating your first program

1.2 Comment lines

1.3 Testing your program

1.4 Adding the #! (shebang) line

1.5 Making a program executable

1.6 Understanding $PATH

1.6.1 Altering your $PATH

1.7 Adding a parameter and help

1.8 Making the argument optional

1.9 Running our tests

1.10 Adding the main() function

1.11 Adding the get_args() function

1.11.1 Checking style and errors

1.12 Testing hello.py

1.13 Starting a new program with new.py

1.14 Using template.py as an alternative to new.py

Summary

2 The crow’s nest: Working with strings

2.1 Getting started

2.1.1 How to use the tests

2.1.2 Creating programs with new.py

2.1.3 Write, test, repeat

2.1.4 Defining your arguments

2.1.5 Concatenating strings

2.1.6 Variable types

2.1.7 Getting just part of a string

2.1.8 Finding help in the REPL

2.1.9 String methods

2.1.10 String comparisons

2.1.11 Conditional branching

2.1.12 String formatting

2.1.13 Time to write

2.2 Solution

2.3 Discussion

2.3.1 Defining the arguments with get_args()

2.3.2 The main() thing

2.3.3 Classifying the first character of a word

2.3.4 Printing the results

2.3.5 Running the test suite

2.4 Going further

Summary

3 Going on a picnic: Working with lists

3.1 Starting the program

3.2 Writing picnic.py

3.3 Introducing lists

3.3.1 Adding one element to a list

3.3.2 Adding many elements to a list

3.3.3 Indexing lists

3.3.4 Slicing lists

3.3.5 Finding elements in a list

3.3.6 Removing elements from a list

3.3.7 Sorting and reversing a list

3.3.8 Lists are mutable

3.3.9 Joining a list

3.4 Conditional branching with if/elif/else

3.4.1 Time to write

3.5 Solution

3.6 Discussion

3.6.1 Defining the arguments

3.6.2 Assigning and sorting the items

3.6.3 Formatting the items

3.6.4 Printing the items

3.7 Going further

Summary

4 Jump the Five: Working with dictionaries

4.1 Dictionaries

4.1.1 Creating a dictionary

4.1.2 Accessing dictionary values

4.1.3 Other dictionary methods

4.2 Writing jump.py

4.3 Solution

4.4 Discussion

4.4.1 Defining the parameters

4.4.2 Using a dict for encoding

4.4.3 Various ways to process items in a series

4.4.4 (Not) using str.replace()

4.5 Going further

Summary

5 Howler: Working with files and STDOUT

5.1 Reading files

5.2 Writing files

5.3 Writing howler.py

5.4 Solution

5.5 Discussion

5.5.1 Defining the arguments

5.5.2 Reading input from a file or the command line

5.5.3 Choosing the output file handle

5.5.4 Printing the output

5.5.5 A low-memory version

5.6 Going further

Summary

6 Words count: Reading files and STDIN, iterating lists, formatting strings

6.1 Writing wc.py

6.1.1 Defining file inputs

6.1.2 Iterating lists

6.1.3 What you’re counting

6.1.4 Formatting your results

6.2 Solution

6.3 Discussion

6.3.1 Defining the arguments

6.3.2 Reading a file using a for loop

6.4 Going further

Summary

7 Gashlycrumb: Looking items up in a dictionary

7.1 Writing gashlycrumb.py

7.2 Solution

7.3 Discussion

7.3.1 Handling the arguments

7.3.2 Reading the input file

7.3.3 Using a dictionary comprehension

7.3.4 Dictionary lookups

7.4 Going further

Summary

8 Apples and Bananas: Find and replace

8.1 Altering strings

8.1.1 Using the str.replace() method

8.1.2 Using str.translate()

8.1.3 Other ways to mutate strings

8.2 Solution

8.3 Discussion

8.3.1 Defining the parameters

8.3.2 Eight ways to replace the vowels

8.4 Refactoring with tests

8.5 Going further

Summary

9 Dial-a-Curse: Generating random insults from lists of words

9.2 Writing abuse.py

9.1.1 Validating arguments

9.1.2 Importing and seeding the random module

9.1.3 Defining the adjectives and nouns

9.1.4 Taking random samples and choices

9.1.5 Formatting the output

9.2 Solution

9.3 Discussion

9.3.1 Defining the arguments

9.3.2 Using parser.error()

9.3.3 Program exit values and STDERR

9.3.4 Controlling randomness with random.seed()

9.3.5 Iterating with range() and using throwaway variables

9.3.6 Constructing the insults

9.4 Going further

Summary

10 Telephone: Randomly mutating strings

10.1 Writing telephone.py

10.1.1 Calculating the number of mutations

10.1.2 The mutation space

10.1.3 Selecting the characters to mutate

10.1.4 Mutating a string

10.1.5 Time to write

10.2 Solution

10.3 Discussion

10.3.1 Mutating a string

10.3.2 Using a list instead of a str

10.4 Going further

Summary

11 Bottles of Beer Song: Writing and testing functions

11.1 Writing bottles.py

11.1.1 Counting down

11.1.2 Writing a function

11.1.3 Writing a test for verse()

11.1.4 Using the verse() function

11.2 Solution

11.3 Discussion

11.3.1 Counting down

11.3.2 Test-driven development

11.3.3 The verse() function

11.3.4 Iterating through the verses

11.3.5 1,500 other solutions

11.4 Going further

Summary

12 Ransom: Randomly capitalizing text

12.1 Writing ransom.py

12.1.1 Mutating the text

12.1.2 Flipping a coin

12.1.3 Creating a new string

12.2 Solution

12.3 Discussion

12.3.1 Iterating through elements in a sequence

12.3.2 Writing a function to choose the letter

12.3.3 Another way to write list.append()

12.3.4 Using a str instead of a list

12.3.5 Using a list comprehension

12.3.6 Using a map() function

12.4 Comparing methods

12.5 Going further

Summary

13 Twelve Days of Christmas: Algorithm design

13.1 Writing twelve_days.py

13.1.1 Counting

13.1.2 Creating the ordinal value

13.1.3 Making the verses

13.1.4 Using the verse() function

13.1.5 Printing

13.1.6 Time to write

13.2 Solution

13.3 Discussion

13.3.1 Making one verse

13.3.2 Generating the verses

13.3.3 Printing the verses

13.4 Going further

Summary

14 Rhymer: Using regular expressions to create rhyming words

14.1 Writing rhymer.py

14.1.1 Breaking a word

14.1.2 Using regular expressions

14.1.3 Using capture groups

14.1.4 Truthiness

14.1.5 Creating the output

14.2 Solution

14.3 Discussion

14.3.1 Stemming a word

14.3.2 Formatting and commenting the regular expression

14.3.3 Using the stemmer() function outside your program

14.3.4 Creating rhyming strings

14.3.5 Writing stemmer() without regular expressions

14.4 Going further

Summary

15 The Kentucky Friar: More regular expressions

15.1 Writing friar.py

15.1.1 Splitting text using regular expressions

15.1.2 Shorthand classes

15.1.3 Negated shorthand classes

15.1.4 Using re.split() with a captured regex

15.1.5 Writing the fry() function

15.1.6 Using the fry() function

15.2 Solution

15.3 Discussion

15.3.1 Writing the fry() function manually

15.3.2 Writing the fry() function with regular expressions

15.4 Going further

Summary

16 The scrambler: Randomly reordering the middles of words

16.1 Writing scrambler.py

16.1.1 Breaking the text into lines and words

16.1.2 Capturing, non-capturing, and optional groups

16.1.3 Compiling a regex

16.1.4 Scrambling a word

16.1.5 Scrambling all the words

16.2 Solution

16.3 Discussion

16.3.1 Processing the text

16.3.2 Scrambling a word

16.4 Going further

Summary

17 Mad Libs:Using regular expressions

17.1 Writing mad.py

17.1.1 Using regular expressions to find the pointy bits

17.1.2 Halting and printing errors

17.1.3 Getting the values

17.1.4 Substituting the text

17.2 Solution

17.3 Discussion

17.3.1 Substituting with regular expressions

17.3.2 Finding the placeholders without regular expressions

17.4 Going further

Summary

18 Gematria: Numeric encoding of text using ASCII values

18.1 Writing gematria.py

18.1.1 Cleaning a word

18.1.2 Ordinal character values and ranges

18.1.3 Summing and reducing

18.1.4 Using functools.reduce

18.1.5 Encoding the words

18.1.6 Breaking the text

18.2 Solution

18.3 Discussion

18.3.1 Writing word2num()

18.3.2 Sorting

18.3.3 Testing

18.4 Going further

Summary

19 Workout of the Day: Parsing CSV files, creating text table output

19.1 Writing wod.py

19.1.1 Reading delimited text files

19.1.2 Manually reading a CSV file

19.1.3 Parsing with the csv module

19.1.4 Creating a function to read a CSV file

19.1.5 Selecting the exercises

19.1.6 Formatting the output

19.1.7 Handling bad data

19.1.8 Time to write

19.2 Solution

19.3 Discussion

19.3.1 Reading a CSV file

19.3.2 Potential runtime errors

19.3.3 Using pandas.read_csv() to parse the file

19.3.4 Formatting the table

19.4 Going further

Summary

20 Password strength: Generating a secure and memorable password

20.1 Writing password.py

20.1.1 Creating a unique list of words

20.1.2 Cleaning the text

20.1.3 Using a set

20.1.4 Filtering the words

20.1.5 Titlecasing the words

20.1.6 Sampling and making a password

20.1.7 l33t-ify

20.1.8 Putting it all together

20.2 Solution

20.3 Discussion

20.3.1 Cleaning the text

20.3.2 A king’s ransom

20.3.3 How to l33t()

20.3.4 Processing the files

20.3.5 Sampling and creating the passwords

20.4 Going further

Summary

21 Tic-Tac-Toe: Exploring state

21.1 Writing tictactoe.py

21.1.1 Validating user input

21.1.2 Altering the board

21.1.3 Printing the board

21.1.4 Determining a winner

21.2 Solution

21.2.1 Validating the arguments and mutating the board

21.2.2 Formatting the board

21.2.3 Finding the winner

21.3 Going further

Summary

22 Tic-Tac-Toe redux: An interactive version with type hints

22.1 Writing itictactoe.py

22.1.1 Tuple talk

22.1.2 Named tuples

22.1.3 Adding type hints

22.1.4 Type verification with Mypy

22.1.5 Updating immutable structures

22.1.6 Adding type hints to function definitions

22.2 Solution

22.2.1 A version using TypedDict

22.2.2 Thinking about state\

22.3 Going further

Summary

23 Epilogue

Appendixes

Appendix A: Using argparse

A.1 Types of arguments

A.2 Using a template to start a program

A.3 Using argparse

A.3.1 Creating the parser

A.3.2 Creating a positional parameter

A.3.3 Creating an optional string parameter

A.3.4 Creating an optional numeric parameter

A.3.5 Creating an optional file parameter

A.3.6 Creating a flag option

A.3.7 Returning from get_args

A.4 Examples using argparse

A.4.1 A single positional argument

A.4.2 Two different positional arguments

A.4.3 Restricting values using the choices option

A.4.4 Two of the same positional arguments

A.4.5 One or more of the same positional arguments

A.4.6 File arguments

A.4.7 Manually checking arguments

A.4.8 Automatic help

Summary

What's inside

  • Write command-line Python programs
  • Manipulate Python data structures
  • Use and control randomness
  • Write and run tests for programs and functions
  • Download testing suites for each project

About the reader

For readers with beginner programming skills.

About the author

Ken Youens-Clark is a Senior Scientific Programmer at the University of Arizona. He has an MS in Biosystems Engineering and has been programming for over 20 years.

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