Object Design Style Guide
Matthias Noback
Foreword by Ross Tuck
  • December 2019
  • ISBN 9781617296857
  • 288 pages
  • printed in black & white

Offers both guidelines and guidance on how to achieve a clear, consistent tone across a larger team.

From the Foreword by Ross Tuck
Objects are the central concept of languages like Java, Python, C#. Applying best practices for object design means that your code will be easy to read, write, and maintain. Object Design Style Guide captures dozens of techniques for creating pro-quality OO code that can stand the test of time. Examples are in an instantly familiar pseudocode, teaching techniques you can apply to any OO language, from C++ to PHP.

About the Technology

Well-written OO code is a pleasure to read, modify, and debug. Elevate your coding style by mastering the universal best practices for object design presented in this book. These clearly presented rules, which apply to any OO language, maximize the clarity and durability of your codebase and increase productivity for you and your team.

About the book

Object Design Style Guide presents dozens of professional techniques for writing OO code. In it, veteran developer Matthias Noback lays out design rules for constructing objects, defining methods, changing and exposing state, and much more. All examples use instantly familiar pseudocode, so you can follow along in the language you prefer. You’ll go case by case as you explore important scenarios and challenges for object design and then walk through a simple web application that demonstrates how different types of objects can work together effectively.
Table of Contents detailed table of contents

1 Programming with objects: A primer

1.1 Dynamic arrays

1.2 Classes and objects

1.3 State

1.4 Behavior

1.5 Dependencies

1.6 Polymorphism

1.7 Composition

1.8 Class organization

1.9 Return statements and exceptions

1.10 Unit testing

1.11 Dynamic arrays

2 Creating services

2.1 Two types of objects

2.2 Inject dependencies and configuration values as constructor arguments

2.2.1 Keeping together configuration values that belong together

2.3 Inject what you need, not where you can get it from

2.4 All constructor arguments should be required

2.5 Only use constructor injection

2.6 There’s no such thing as an optional dependency

2.7 Make all dependencies explicit

2.7.1 Turn static dependencies into object dependencies

2.7.2 Turn complicated functions into object dependencies

2.7.3 Make system calls explicit

2.8 Task-relevant data should be passed as method arguments instead of constructor arguments

2.9 Don’t allow the behavior of a service to change after it has been instantiated

2.10 Do nothing inside a constructor, only assign properties

2.11 Throw an exception when an argument is invalid

2.12 Define services as an immutable object graph with only a few entry points

Summary

Answers to the exercises

3 Creating other objects

3.1 Require the minimum amount of data needed to behave consistently

3.2 Require data that is meaningful

3.3 Don’t use custom exception classes for invalid argument exceptions

3.4 Test for specific invalid argument exceptions by analyzing the exception’s message

3.5 Extract new objects to prevent domain invariants from being verified in multiple places

3.6 Extract new objects to represent composite values

3.7 Use assertions to validate constructor arguments

3.8 Don’t inject dependencies; optionally pass them as method arguments

3.9 Use named constructors

3.9.1 Create from primitive-type values

3.9.2 Don’t immediately add toString(), toInt(), etc.

3.9.3 Introduce a domain-specific concept

3.9.4 Optionally use the private constructor to enforce constraints

3.10 Don’t use property fillers

3.11 Don’t put anything more into an object than it needs

3.12 Don’t test constructors

3.13 The exception to the rule: Data transfer objects

3.13.1 Use public properties

3.13.2 Don’t throw exceptions, collect validation errors

3.13.3 Use property fillers when needed

Summary

Answers to the exercises

4 Manipulating objects

4.1 Entities: Identifiable objects that track changes and record events

4.2 Value objects: Replaceable, anonymous, and immutable values

4.3 Data transfer objects: Simple objects with fewer design rules

4.4 Prefer immutable objects

4.4.1 Replace values instead of modifying them

4.5 A modifier on an immutable object should return a modified copy

4.6 On a mutable object, modifier methods should be command methods

4.7 On an immutable object, modifier methods should have declarative names

4.8 Compare whole objects

4.9 When comparing immutable objects, assert equality, not sameness

4.10 Calling a modifier method should always result in a valid object

4.11 A modifier method should verify that the requested state change is valid

4.12 Use internally recorded events to verify changes on mutable objects

4.13 Don’t implement fluent interfaces on mutable objects

Summary

Answers to the exercises

5 Using objects

5.1 A template for implementing methods

5.1.1 Precondition checks

5.1.2 Failure scenarios

5.1.3 Happy path

5.1.4 Postcondition checks

5.1.5 Return value

5.2 Some rules for exceptions

5.2.1 Use custom exception classes only if needed

5.2.2 Naming invalid argument or logic exception classes

5.2.3 Naming runtime exception classes

5.2.4 Use named constructors to indicate reasons for failure

5.2.5 Add detailed messages

Summary

Answers to the exercises

6 Retrieving information

6.1 Use query methods for information retrieval

6.2 Query methods should have single-type return values

6.3 Avoid query methods that expose internal state

6.4 Define specific methods and return types for the queries you want to make

6.5 Define an abstraction for queries that cross system boundaries

6.6 Use stubs for test doubles with query methods

6.7 Query methods should use other query methods, not command methods

Summary

Answers to the exercises

7 Performing tasks

7.1 Use command methods with a name in the imperative form

7.2 Limit the scope of a command method, and use events to perform secondary tasks

7.3 Make services immutable from the outside as well as on the inside

7.4 When something goes wrong, throw an exception

7.5 Use queries to collect information and commands to take the next steps

7.6 Define abstractions for commands that cross system boundaries

7.7 Only verify calls to command methods with a mock

Summary

Answers to the exercises

8 Dividing responsibilities

8.1 Separate write models from read models

8.2 Create read models that are specific for their use cases

8.3 Create read models directly from their data source

8.4 Build read models from domain events

Summary

Answers to the exercises

9 Changing the behavior of services

9.1 Introduce constructor arguments to make behavior configurable

9.2 Introduce constructor arguments to make behavior replaceable

9.3 Compose abstractions to achieve more complicated behavior

9.4 Decorate existing behavior

9.5 Use notification objects or event listeners for additional behavior

9.6 Don’t use inheritance to change an object’s behavior

9.6.1 When is it okay to use inheritance?

9.7 Mark classes as final by default

9.8 Mark methods and properties private by default

Summary

Answers to the exercises

10 A field guide to objects

10.1 Controllers

10.2 Application services

10.3 Write model repositories

10.4 Entities

10.5 Value objects

10.6 Event listeners

10.7 Read models and read model repositories

10.8 Abstractions, concretions, layers, and dependencies

Summary

11 Epilogue

11.1 Architectural patterns

11.2 Testing

11.2.1 Class testing versus object testing

11.2.2 Top-down feature development

11.3 Domain-driven design

11.4 Conclusion

Appendixes

Appendix A: Coding standard for the code samples

What's inside

  • Universal design rules for a wide range of objects
  • Best practices for testing objects
  • A catalog of common object types
  • Exercises for each chapter to test your object design skills

About the reader

For readers familiar with an object-oriented language and basic application architecture.

About the author

Matthias Noback is a professional web developer with nearly two decades of experience. He runs his own web development, training, and consultancy company called “Noback’s Office.”

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