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The Design of Web APIs
Arnaud Lauret
Foreword by Kin Lane
  • October 2019
  • ISBN 9781617295102
  • 392 pages
  • printed in black & white

Assembles the fundamental building blocks of API design in an easy-to-access way, and walks you through the vast landscape in a friendly and comfortable manner.

From the Foreword by Kin Lane, The API Evangelist

The Design of Web APIs is a practical, example-packed guide to crafting extraordinary web APIs. Author Arnaud Lauret demonstrates fantastic design principles and techniques you can apply to both public and private web APIs.

Table of Contents detailed table of contents

Part 1: Fundamentals of API Design

1 What is API design?

1.1 What is an API?

1.1.1 An API is a web interface for software

1.1.2 APIs turn software into LEGO® bricks

1.2 Why API design matters

1.2.1 A public or private API is an interface for other developers

1.2.2 An API is made to hide the implementation

1.2.3 The terrible consequences of poorly designed APIs

1.3 The elements of API design

1.3.1 Learning the principles beyond programming interface design

1.3.2 Exploring all facets of API design

Summary

2 Designing an API for its users

2.1 The right perspective for designing everyday user interfaces

2.1.1 Focusing on how things work leads to complicated interfaces

2.1.2 Focusing on what users can do leads to simple interfaces

2.2 Designing software’s interfaces

2.2.1 Viewing an API as software’s control panel

2.2.2 Focusing on the consumer’s perspective to create simple APIs

2.3 Identifying an API’s goals

2.3.1 Identifying the what’s and the how’s

2.3.2 Identifying inputs and outputs

2.3.3 Identifying missing goals

2.3.4 Identifying all users

2.3.5 Using the API goals canvas

2.4 Avoiding the provider’s perspective when designing APIs

2.4.1 Avoiding data influences

2.4.2 Avoiding code and business logic influences

2.4.3 Avoiding software architecture influences

2.4.4 Avoiding human organization influences

2.4.5 Detecting the provider’s perspective in the API goals canvas

Summary

3 Designing a programming interface

3.1 Introducing REST APIs

3.1.1 Analyzing a REST API call

3.1.2 Basic principles of HTTP

3.1.3 Basic principles of REST APIs

3.2 Transposing API goals into a REST API

3.2.1 Identifying resources and their relationships with the API goals canvas

3.2.2 Identifying actions and their parameters and returns with the API goals canvas

3.2.3 Representing resources with paths

3.2.4 Representing actions with HTTP

3.2.5 REST API and HTTP cheat sheet

3.3 Designing the API’s data

3.3.1 Designing concepts

3.3.2 Designing responses from concepts

3.3.3 Designing parameters from concepts or responses

3.3.4 Checking parameter data sources

3.3.5 Designing other parameters

3.4 Striking a balance when facing design challenges

3.4.1 REST trade-off examples

3.4.2 Balancing user-friendliness and compliance

3.5 Understanding why REST matters for the design of any API

3.5.1 Introducing the REST architectural style

3.5.2 The impact of REST constraints on API design

Summary

4 Describing an API with an API description format

4.1 What is an API description format?

4.1.1 Introducing the OpenAPI Specification (OAS)

4.1.2 Why use an API description format?

4.1.3 When to use an API description format

4.2 Describing API resources and actions with OAS

4.2.1 Creating an OAS document

4.2.2 Describing a resource

4.2.3 Describing operations on a resource

4.3 Describing API data with OpenAPI and JSON Schema

4.3.1 Describing query parameters

4.3.2 Describing data with JSON Schema

4.3.3 Describing responses

4.3.4 Describing body parameters

4.4 Describing an API efficiently with OAS

4.4.1 Reusing components

4.4.2 Describing path parameters

Summary

Part 2: Usable API Design

5 Designing a straightforward API

5.1 Designing straightforward representations

5.1.1 Choosing crystal-clear names

5.1.2 Choosing easy-to-use data types and formats

5.1.3 Choosing ready-to-use data

5.2 Designing straightforward interactions

5.2.1 Requesting straightforward inputs

5.2.2 Identifying all possible error feedbacks

5.2.3 Returning informative error feedback

5.2.4 Returning exhaustive error feedback

5.2.5 Returning informative success feedback

5.3 Designing straightforward flows

5.3.1 Building a straightforward goal chain

5.3.2 Preventing errors

5.3.3 Aggregating goals

5.3.4 Designing stateless flows

Summary

6 Designing a predictable API

6.1 Being consistent

6.1.1 Designing consistent data

6.1.2 Designing consistent goals

6.1.3 The four levels of consistency

6.1.4 Copying others: following common practices and meeting standards

6.1.5 Being consistent is hard and must be done wisely

6.2 Being adaptable

6.2.1 Providing and accepting different formats

6.2.2 Internationalizing and localizing

6.2.3 Filtering, paginating, and sorting

6.3 Being discoverable

6.3.1 Providing metadata

6.3.2 Creating hypermedia APIs

6.3.3 Taking advantage of the HTTP protocol

Summary

7 Designing a concise and well-organized API

7.1 Organizing an API

7.1.1 Organizing data

7.1.2 Organizing feedback

7.1.3 Organizing goals

7.2 Sizing an API

7.2.1 Choosing data granularity

7.2.2 Choosing goal granularity

7.2.3 Choosing API granularity

Summary

Part 3: Contextual API Design

8 Designing a secure API

8.1 An overview of API security

8.1.1 Registering a consumer

8.1.2 Getting credentials to consume the API

8.1.3 Making an API call

8.1.4 Envisioning API design from the perspective of security

8.2 Partitioning an API to facilitate access control

8.2.1 Defining flexible but complex fine-grained scopes

8.2.2 Defining simple but less flexible coarse-grained scopes

8.2.3 Choosing scope strategies

8.2.4 Defining scopes with the API description format

8.3 Designing with access control in mind

8.3.1 Knowing what data is needed to control accesses

8.3.2 Adapting the design when necessary

8.4 Handling sensitive material

8.4.1 Handling sensitive data

8.4.2 Handling sensitive goals

8.4.3 Designing secure error feedback

8.4.4 Identifying architecture and protocol issues

Summary

9 Evolving an API design

9.1 Designing evolutions of APIs

9.1.1 Avoiding breaking changes in output data

9.1.2 Avoiding breaking changes to input data and parameters

9.1.3 Avoiding breaking changes in success and error feedback

9.1.4 Avoiding breaking changes to goals and flows

9.1.5 Avoiding security breaches and breaking changes

9.1.6 Being aware of the invisible interface contract

9.1.7 Introducing a breaking change is not always a problem

9.2 Versioning an API

9.2.1 Contrasting API and implementation versioning

9.2.2 Choosing an API versioning representation from the consumer’s perspective

9.2.3 Choosing API versioning granularity

9.2.4 Understanding the impacts of API versioning beyond design

9.3 Designing APIs with extensibility in mind

9.3.1 Designing extensible data

9.3.2 Designing extensible interactions

9.3.3 Designing extensible flows

9.3.4 Designing extensible APIs

Summary

10 Designing a network-efficient API

10.1 Overview of network communication concerns

10.1.1 Setting the scene

10.1.2 Analyzing the problems

10.2 Ensuring network communication efficiency at the protocol level

10.2.1 Activating compression and persistent connections

10.2.2 Enabling caching and conditional requests

10.2.3 Choosing cache policies

10.3 Ensuring network communication efficiency at the design level

10.3.1 Enabling filtering

10.3.2 Choosing relevant data for list representations

10.3.3 Aggregating data

10.3.4 Proposing different representations

10.3.5 Enabling expansion

10.3.6 Enabling querying

10.3.7 Providing more relevant data and goals

10.3.8 Creating different API layers

Summary

11 Designing an API in context

11.1 Adapting communication to the goals and nature of the data

11.1.1 Managing long processes

11.1.2 Notifying consumers of events

11.1.3 Streaming flows of events

11.1.4 Processing multiple elements

11.2 Observing the full context

11.2.1 Being aware of consumers' existing practices and limitations

11.2.2 Carefully considering the provider’s limitations

11.3 Choosing an API style according to the context

11.3.1 Contrasting resource-, data-, and function-based APIs

11.3.2 Thinking beyond request/response- and HTTP-based APIs

Summary

12 Documenting an API

12.1 Creating reference documentation

12.1.1 Documenting data models

12.1.2 Documenting goals

12.1.3 Documenting Security

12.1.4 Providing an overview of the API

12.1.5 Generating documentation from the implementation pros and cons

12.2 Creating a user guide

12.2.1 Documenting use cases

12.2.2 Documenting security

12.2.3 Providing an overview of common behaviors and principles

12.2.4 Thinking beyond static documentation

12.3 Providing adequate information to implementers

12.4 Documenting evolutions and retirement

Summary

13 Growing APIs

13.1 The API lifecycle

13.2 Building API design guidelines

13.2.1 What to put in API design guidelines

13.2.2 Continuously building guidelines

13.3 Reviewing APIs

13.3.1 Challenging and analyzing needs

13.3.2 Linting the design

13.3.3 Reviewing the design from the provider’s perspective

13.3.4 Reviewing the design from the consumer’s perspective

13.3.5 Verifying the implementation

13.4 Communicating and sharing

Summary

About the Technology

An API frees developers to integrate with an application without knowing its code-level details. Whether you’re using established standards like REST and OpenAPI or more recent approaches like GraphQL or gRPC, mastering API design is a superskill. It will make your web-facing services easier to consume and your clients—internal and external—happier.

About the book

Drawing on author Arnaud Lauret's many years of API design experience, this book teaches you how to gather requirements, how to balance business and technical goals, and how to adopt a consumer-first mindset. It teaches effective practices using numerous interesting examples.

What's inside

  • Characteristics of a well-designed API
  • User-oriented and real-world APIs
  • Secure APIs by design
  • Evolving, documenting, and reviewing API designs

About the reader

Written for developers with minimal experience building and consuming APIs.

About the author

A software architect with extensive experience in the banking industry, Arnaud Lauret has spent 10 years using, designing, and building APIs. He blogs under the name of API Handyman and has created the API Stylebook website.


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